Information Architecture (IA) is often confused with Data Architecture, which is entirely technical. IA is not technical and encompasses the structure of an application from a user's perspective. A perfect definition of Information Architecture (IA) has eluded even the most dedicated experts because it's not always something you can point to. Some analogize it to the rules that turn a checkerboard and 32 symbolic objects into the game of chess. Without the rules, chess pieces are meaningless. But the rules themselves are invisible. To an application's user, evidence of an effective IA is an experience that is logical, consistent, and empowering. To an application's creators, evidence of an effective IA occurs in the form of documents like sitemaps, workflow diagrams and others too numerous to list. Here are a few outtakes from a small sample of IA Specification documents I have authored.